natural | general natural language facilities for node | Natural Language Processing library

 by   NaturalNode JavaScript Version: 6.10.3 License: MIT

kandi X-RAY | natural Summary

kandi X-RAY | natural Summary

natural is a JavaScript library typically used in Artificial Intelligence, Natural Language Processing applications. natural has no bugs, it has no vulnerabilities, it has a Permissive License and it has medium support. You can install using 'npm i natural' or download it from GitHub, npm.

"Natural" is a general natural language facility for nodejs. It offers a broad range of functionalities for natural language processing. Documentation can be found here on Github Pages.

            kandi-support Support

              natural has a medium active ecosystem.
              It has 10218 star(s) with 883 fork(s). There are 247 watchers for this library.
              There were 10 major release(s) in the last 6 months.
              There are 84 open issues and 271 have been closed. On average issues are closed in 393 days. There are 1 open pull requests and 0 closed requests.
              It has a neutral sentiment in the developer community.
              The latest version of natural is 6.10.3

            kandi-Quality Quality

              natural has 0 bugs and 0 code smells.

            kandi-Security Security

              natural has no vulnerabilities reported, and its dependent libraries have no vulnerabilities reported.
              natural code analysis shows 0 unresolved vulnerabilities.
              There are 0 security hotspots that need review.

            kandi-License License

              natural is licensed under the MIT License. This license is Permissive.
              Permissive licenses have the least restrictions, and you can use them in most projects.

            kandi-Reuse Reuse

              natural releases are available to install and integrate.
              Deployable package is available in npm.

            Top functions reviewed by kandi - BETA

            kandi has reviewed natural and discovered the below as its top functions. This is intended to give you an instant insight into natural implemented functionality, and help decide if they suit your requirements.
            • Parses the tokens of the input .
            • Attempt to parse uri
            • parse the email token
            • Parses numbers .
            • Parse single token sequence
            • Parse the current token sequence
            • Parses abbreviation
            • Parse the incoming sentence .
            • Parse the current sentence .
            • Attempt to parse the current word .
            Get all kandi verified functions for this library.

            natural Key Features

            No Key Features are available at this moment for natural.

            natural Examples and Code Snippets

            Natural language flows,How it works
            JavaScriptdot img1Lines of Code : 133dot img1License : Permissive (MIT)
            copy iconCopy
            // Require the natural language flows
            var nlf = require('natural-language-flows');
            // Initialize the bot
            var bot = new nlf.Bot();
            // Initialize the bot
            var bot = new Bot();
            // Set a default non matched reply
            bot.NonMatchedReply = "Sorry, I do not   
            Usage,Running with Node.js
            JavaScriptdot img2Lines of Code : 77dot img2License : Permissive (Apache-2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            const knowledge = require('knowledge-graph-js')
            // Search using only a query
  'katy perry')
            // Search specifying the entity type
  'Madison Square Garden', 'Place')
            // List of available graph entities
            :pushpin: Methods
            JavaScriptdot img3Lines of Code : 56dot img3no licencesLicense : No License
            copy iconCopy
            sort.comb(array, sort.DESC)
            sort.comb(array, sort.ASC)
            sort.comb(array, comparisonFunction)
            sort.quick(array, sort.DESC)
            sort.quick(array, sort.ASC)
            sort.quick(array, comparisonFunction)
            sort.merge(array, sort.DESC)
            sort.merge(array, sort.ASC)  
            Finds the natural ordering of the specified words .
            javadot img4Lines of Code : 55dot img4no licencesLicense : No License
            copy iconCopy
            public static String alienOrder(String[] words) {
                    // Step 0: Create data structures and find all unique letters.
                    Map> adjList = new HashMap<>();
                    Map counts = new HashMap<>();
                    for (String word : words) {
            Sieve a list of natural numbers
            pythondot img5Lines of Code : 33dot img5License : Permissive (MIT License)
            copy iconCopy
            def sieveEr(N):
                input: positive integer 'N' > 2
                returns a list of prime numbers from 2 up to N.
                This function implements the algorithm called
                sieve of erathostenes.
                # precondition
                assert isinstance(N, int  
            Return the collaton sequence for a natural number .
            pythondot img6Lines of Code : 30dot img6License : Permissive (MIT License)
            copy iconCopy
            def collatz_sequence(n: int) -> list[int]:
                Collatz conjecture: start with any positive integer n. The next term is
                obtained as follows:
                    If n term is even, the next term is: n / 2 .
                    If n is odd, the next term is: 3 *  

            Community Discussions


            Java PriorityQueue: how to heapify a Collection with a custom Comparator?
            Asked 2022-Mar-10 at 03:24

            For example, given a List of Integer List list = Arrays.asList(5,4,5,2,2), how can I get a maxHeap from this List in O(n) time complexity?

            The naive method:



            Answered 2021-Aug-28 at 15:09
            If you don't mind some hack

            According to the java doc of PriorityQueue(PriorityQueue)

            Creates a PriorityQueue containing the elements in the specified priority queue. This priority queue will be ordered according to the same ordering as the given priority queue.

            So we can extend PriorityQueue as CustomComparatorPriorityQueue to hold the desired comparator and the Collection we need to heapify. Then call new PriorityQueue(PriorityQueue) with an instance of CustomComparatorPriorityQueue.

            Below is tested to work in Java 15.



            How to measure energy usage in Xcode 13 / iOS15?
            Asked 2022-Feb-23 at 00:43

            I'd like to confirm the battery usage of an app I am developing on iOS, specifically on Xcode 13 and iOS 15. (Note: This app previously showed no issues with battery usage on previous versions of iOS.)

            Previously, it seems that there were two ways to gather energy usage information:

            #1. On the device under Settings > Developer > Logging

            • As per Apple's documentation described in the section titled "Log Energy Usage Directly on an iOS Device".
            • However, on iOS15, I can't find any options for logging under Developer or anywhere under settings even when searching.

            #2. Profiling via Instruments using the "Energy Log" template

            • As per the same documentation from Apple described in the section "Use the Energy Diagnostics Profiling Template".
            • While it is still available in Xcode 12, this template is missing in Xcode 13. Naturally, it's also not possible to profile an iOS15 device with Xcode 12.

            Digging through the Xcode 13 release notes, I found the following:

            Instruments no longer includes the Energy template; use metrics reporting in the Xcode Organizer instead. (74161279)

            When I access the Organizer in Xcode (12 or 13), select an app and click "Energy" for all versions of the app, it shows the following:

            Apple's documentation for "Analyzing the Performance of Your Shipping App" says:

            "In some cases the pane shows “Insufficient usage data available,” because there may not be enough anonymized data reported by participating user devices. When this happens, try checking back in a few days."

            Well over a year into production and having sufficient install numbers, I have a feeling that waiting a few days might not do much.

            I would like to determine if this is a bug in my app or a bug in iOS15. How can energy usage data be gathered using Xcode 13 on iOS 15?



            Answered 2022-Feb-23 at 00:43

            After contacting Apple Developer Technical Support (DTS) regarding this issue, they provided me with the following guidance.

            Regarding "insufficient usage data available" for energy logs accessible via the Xcode organizer:

            DTS indicated that they do not publish the thresholds for active users and usage logs would be expected to be present if you have more that a few thousand active users consistently on each version of your app. If your app meets this criteria and still does not show energy logs, DTS recommended opening a bug report with them.

            Regarding how to collect energy log data for your app:

            DTS recommended using MetricKit to get daily metric payloads. Payloads are delivered to your app every 24 hours and it is then possible to consume them and send them off device.

            The instantiation of this is vey basic and can be as simple as:



            How to use of laziness in Scheme efficiently?
            Asked 2021-Dec-30 at 10:19

            I am trying to encode a small lambda calculus with algebraic datatypes in Scheme. I want it to use lazy evaluation, for which I tried to use the primitives delay and force. However, this has a large negative impact on the performance of evaluation: the execution time on a small test case goes up by a factor of 20x.

            While I did not expect laziness to speed up this particular test case, I did not expect a huge slowdown either. My question is thus: What is causing this huge overhead with lazy evaluation, and how can I avoid this problem while still getting lazy evaluation? I would already be happy to get within 2x the execution time of the strict version, but faster is of course always better.

            Below are the strict and lazy versions of the test case I used. The test deals with natural numbers in unary notation: it constructs a sequence of 2^24 sucs followed by a zero and then destructs the result again. The lazy version was constructed from the strict version by adding delay and force in appropriate places, and adding let-bindings to avoid forcing an argument more than once. (I also tried a version where zero and suc were strict but other functions were lazy, but this was even slower than the fully lazy version so I omitted it here.)

            I compiled both programs using compile-file in Chez Scheme 9.5 and executed the resulting .so files with petite --program. Execution time (user only) for the strict version was 0.578s, while the lazy version takes 11,891s, which is almost exactly 20x slower.

            Strict version ...


            Answered 2021-Dec-28 at 16:24

            This sounds very like a problem that crops up in Haskell from time to time. The problem is one of garbage collection.

            There are two ways that this can go. Firstly, the lazy list can be consumed as it is used, so that the amount of memory consumed is limited. Or, secondly, the lazy list can be evaluated in a way that it remains in memory all of the time, with one end of the list pinned in place because it is still being used - the garbage collector objects to this and spends a lot of time trying to deal with this situation.

            Haskell can be as fast as C, but requires the calculation to be strict for this to be possible.

            I don't entirely understand the code, but it appears to be recursively creating a longer and longer list, which is then evaluated. Do you have the tools to measure the amount of memory that the garbage collector is having to deal with, and how much time the garbage collector runs for?



            Why GCC generates strange way to move stack pointer
            Asked 2021-Dec-22 at 18:10

            I have observed that GCC's C++ compiler generates the following assembler code:



            Answered 2021-Dec-22 at 18:10

            Try assembling both and you'll see why.



            AWX all jobs stop processing and hang indefinitely -- why
            Asked 2021-Dec-21 at 14:42

            We've had a working Ansible AWX instance running on v5.0.0 for over a year, and suddenly all jobs stop working -- no output is rendered. They will start "running" but hang indefinitely without printing out any logging.

            The AWX instance is running in a docker compose container setup as defined here:


            Standard troubleshooting such as restarting of containers, host OS, etc. hasn't helped. No configuration changes in either environment.

            Upon debugging an actual playbook command, we observe that the command to run a playbook from the UI is like the below:

            ssh-agent sh -c ssh-add /tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/artifacts/11021/ssh_key_data && rm -f /tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/artifacts/11021/ssh_key_data && ansible-playbook -vvvvv -u ubuntu --become --ask-vault-pass -i /tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/tmppo7rcdqn -e @/tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/env/extravars playbook.yml

            That's broken down into three commands in sequence:

            1. ssh-agent sh -c ssh-add /tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/artifacts/11021/ssh_key_data
            2. rm -f /tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/artifacts/11021/ssh_key_data
            3. ansible-playbook -vvvvv -u ubuntu --become --ask-vault-pass -i /tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/tmppo7rcdqn -e @/tmp/awx_11021_0fmwm5uz/env/extravars playbook.yml

            You can see in part 3, the -vvvvv is the debugging argument -- however, the hang is happening on command #1. Which has nothing to do with ansible or AWX specifically, but it's not going to get us much debugging info.

            I tried doing an strace to see what is going on, but for reasons given below, it is pretty difficult to follow what it is actually hanging on. I can provide this output if it might help.


            So one natural question with command #1 -- what is 'ssh_key_data'?

            Well it's what we set up to be the Machine credential in AWX (an SSH key) -- it hasn't changed in a while and it works just fine when used in a direct SSH command. It's also apparently being set up by AWX as a file pipe:

            prw------- 1 root root 0 Dec 10 08:29 ssh_key_data

            Which starts to explain why it could be potentially hanging (if nothing is being read in from the other side of the pipe).

            Running a normal ansible-playbook from command line (and supplying the SSH key in a more normal way) works just fine, so we can still deploy, but only via CLI right now -- it's just AWX that is broken.


            So the question then becomes "why now"? And "how to debug"? I have checked the health of awx_postgres, and verified that indeed the Machine credential is present in an expected format (in the main_credential table). I have also verified that can use ssh-agent on the awx_task container without the use of that pipe keyfile. So it really seems to be this piped file that is the problem -- but I haven't been able to glean from any logs where the other side of the pipe (sender) is supposed to be or why they aren't sending the data.



            Answered 2021-Dec-13 at 04:21

            Had the same issue starting this Friday in the same timeframe as you. Turned out that Crowdstrike (falcon sensor) Agent was the culprit. I'm guessing they pushed a definition update that is breaking or blocking fifo pipes. When we stopped the CS agent, AWX started working correctly again, with no issues. See if you are running a similar security product.



            Assembly why is "lea eax, [eax + eax*const]; shl eax, eax, const;" combined faster than "imul eax, eax, const" according to gcc -O2?
            Asked 2021-Dec-13 at 10:27

            I'm using godbolt to get assembly of the following program:



            Answered 2021-Dec-13 at 06:33

            You can see the cost of instructions on most mainstream architecture here and there. Based on that and assuming you use for example an Intel Skylake processor, you can see that one 32-bit imul instruction can be computed per cycle but with a latency of 3 cycles. In the optimized code, 2 lea instructions (which are very cheap) can be executed per cycle with a 1 cycle latency. The same thing apply for the sal instruction (2 per cycle and 1 cycle of latency).

            This means that the optimized version can be executed with only 2 cycle of latency while the first one takes 3 cycle of latency (not taking into account load/store instructions that are the same). Moreover, the second version can be better pipelined since the two instructions can be executed for two different input data in parallel thanks to a superscalar out-of-order execution. Note that two loads can be executed in parallel too although only one store can be executed in parallel per cycle. This means that the execution is bounded by the throughput of store instructions. Overall, only 1 value can only computed per cycle. AFAIK, recent Intel Icelake processors can do two stores in parallel like new AMD Ryzen processors. The second one is expected to be as fast or possibly faster on the chosen use-case (Intel Skylake processors). It should be significantly faster on very recent x86-64 processors.

            Note that the lea instruction is very fast because the multiply-add is done on a dedicated CPU unit (hard-wired shifters) and it only supports some specific constant for the multiplication (supported factors are 1, 2, 4 and 8, which mean that lea can be used to multiply an integer by the constants 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9). This is why lea is faster than imul/mul.

            UPDATE (v2):

            I can reproduce the slower execution with -O2 using GCC 11.2 (on Linux with a i5-9600KF processor).

            The main source of source of slowdown comes from the higher number of micro-operations (uops) to be executed in the -O2 version certainly combined with the saturation of some execution ports certainly due to a bad micro-operation scheduling.

            Here is the assembly of the loop with -Os:



            Inverting an Order-Preserving Minimal Perfect Hash Function in Better than O(K*lg N) Running Time
            Asked 2021-Nov-20 at 16:05

            I am trying to find a more efficient solution to a combinatorics problem than the solution I have already found.

            Suppose I have a set of N objects (indexed 0..N-1) and wish to consider each subset of size K (0<=K<=N). There are S=C(N,K) (i.e., "N choose K") such subsets. I wish to map (or "encode") each such subset to a unique integer in the range 0..S-1.

            Using N=7 (i.e., indexes are 0..6) and K=4 (S=35) as an example, the following mapping is the goal:
            0 1 2 3 --> 0
            0 1 2 4 --> 1
            2 4 5 6 --> 33
            3 4 5 6 --> 34

            N and K were chosen small for the purposes of illustration. However, in my actual application, C(N,K) is far too large to obtain these mappings from a lookup table. They must be computed on-the-fly.

            In the code that follows, combinations_table is a pre-computed two-dimensional array for fast lookup of C(N,K) values.

            All code given is compliant with the C++14 standard.

            If the objects in a subset are ordered by increasing order of their indexes, the following code will compute that subset's encoding:



            Answered 2021-Oct-21 at 02:18

            Take a look at the recursive formula for combinations:

            Suppose you have a combination space C(n,k). You can divide that space into two subspaces:

            • C(n-1,k-1) all combinations, where the first element of the original set (of length n) is present
            • C(n-1, k) where first element is not preset

            If you have an index X that corresponds to a combination from C(n,k), you can identify whether the first element of your original set belongs to the subset (which corresponds to X), if you check whether X belongs to either subspace:

            • X < C(n-1, k-1) : belongs
            • X >= C(n-1, k-1): doesn't belong

            Then you can recursively apply the same approach for C(n-1, ...) and so on, until you've found the answer for all n elements of the original set.

            Python code to illustrate this approach:



            Identity of unnamed enums with no enumerators
            Asked 2021-Oct-26 at 12:10

            Consider a program with the following two translation units:



            Answered 2021-Oct-26 at 07:51

            This program is well-formed and prints 1, as seen. Because S is defined identically in both translation units with external linkage, it is as if there is one definition of S ([basic.def.odr]/14) and thus only one enumeration type is defined. (In practice it is mangled based on the name S or S::x.)

            This is just the same phenomenon as static local variables and lambdas being shared among the definitions of an inline function:



            Separating operator definitions for a class to other files and using them
            Asked 2021-Sep-15 at 11:14

            I have 4 files all in the same directory: main.rakumod, infix_ops.rakumod, prefix_ops.rakumod and script.raku:

            • main module has a class definition (class A)
            • *_ops modules have some operator routine definitions to write, e.g., $a1 + $a2 in an overloaded way.
            • script.raku tries to instantaniate A object(s) and use those user-defined operators.

            Why 3 files not 1? Since class definition might be long and separating overloaded operator definitions in files seemed like a good idea for writing tidier code (easier to manage).




            Answered 2021-Sep-15 at 11:14

            it says 'use lib' may not be pre-compiled

            • The word "may" is ambiguous. Actually it cannot be precompiled.

            • The message would be better if it said something to the effect of "Don't put use lib in a module."

            This has now been fixed per @codesections++'s comment below.

            perhaps because of circular dependentness

            No. use lib can only be used by the main program file, the one directly run by Rakudo.

            Is there a way I can achieve this?

            Here's one way.

            We introduce a new file that's used by the other packages to eliminate the circularity. So now we have four files (I've rationalized the naming to stick to A or variants of it for the packages that contribute to the type A):

            1. A-sawn.rakumod that's a role or class or similar:



            Manage scrolling for SingleChildScrollView inside a SingleChildScrollView - flutter?
            Asked 2021-Sep-15 at 01:41

            I have a parent SCS View(SingleChildScrollView) and a child SCS View. Inside the child SCS View there is a Data Table, and the Data Table starts at around bottom quarter of the screen.

            Now, I want to scroll the parent SCS View when the user scrolls to the top of Data Table inside child SCS View.

            This works naturally in web, but does not work in iOS or anroid. I tried using same Scrollcontroller for both parent & child SCS View and played around with ScrollPhysics. But nothing seem to work. Can you please help me with a solution.

            Here is the code:



            Answered 2021-Aug-29 at 07:45

            Community Discussions, Code Snippets contain sources that include Stack Exchange Network


            No vulnerabilities reported

            Install natural

            You can install using 'npm i natural' or download it from GitHub, npm.


            For any new features, suggestions and bugs create an issue on GitHub. If you have any questions check and ask questions on community page Stack Overflow .
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