Surprise | Python scikit for building and analyzing recommender systems | Recommender System library

 by   NicolasHug Python Version: v1.1.3 License: BSD-3-Clause

kandi X-RAY | Surprise Summary

kandi X-RAY | Surprise Summary

Surprise is a Python library typically used in Artificial Intelligence, Recommender System applications. Surprise has no bugs, it has no vulnerabilities, it has build file available, it has a Permissive License and it has medium support. You can download it from GitHub.

Surprise is a Python scikit for building and analyzing recommender systems that deal with explicit rating data.

            kandi-support Support

              Surprise has a medium active ecosystem.
              It has 5791 star(s) with 980 fork(s). There are 147 watchers for this library.
              It had no major release in the last 6 months.
              There are 71 open issues and 303 have been closed. On average issues are closed in 38 days. There are 14 open pull requests and 0 closed requests.
              It has a neutral sentiment in the developer community.
              The latest version of Surprise is v1.1.3

            kandi-Quality Quality

              Surprise has 0 bugs and 0 code smells.

            kandi-Security Security

              Surprise has no vulnerabilities reported, and its dependent libraries have no vulnerabilities reported.
              Surprise code analysis shows 0 unresolved vulnerabilities.
              There are 0 security hotspots that need review.

            kandi-License License

              Surprise is licensed under the BSD-3-Clause License. This license is Permissive.
              Permissive licenses have the least restrictions, and you can use them in most projects.

            kandi-Reuse Reuse

              Surprise releases are not available. You will need to build from source code and install.
              Build file is available. You can build the component from source.
              Installation instructions, examples and code snippets are available.
              Surprise saves you 1506 person hours of effort in developing the same functionality from scratch.
              It has 3358 lines of code, 174 functions and 62 files.
              It has medium code complexity. Code complexity directly impacts maintainability of the code.

            Top functions reviewed by kandi - BETA

            kandi has reviewed Surprise and discovered the below as its top functions. This is intended to give you an instant insight into Surprise implemented functionality, and help decide if they suit your requirements.
            • Cross validation
            • Print a summary of the given algorithm
            • Get a KFold from a given CV object
            • Load a builtin dataset
            • Download a builtin dataset
            • Return the path to the dataset
            • Fit the Algorithm
            • Construct a full trainset
            • Construct a trainset
            • Sample parameters from parameters distributions
            • Convert random_state to a random number
            • Fit the model to the given dataset
            • Estimate the mean value for a given user
            • Get the top n values from the predictions
            • Estimate a prediction for a user
            • Return the inner id of the given riid
            • Estimate the prediction for a given user
            • Read ids from file
            • Returns the path to the dataset
            • Get k nearest neighbors
            • Builds the full trainset
            • Estimate the probability for a given user
            • Fit and return the results for the given algorithm
            • Train a test split
            • Calculate precision recall at top k
            • Estimate the weighted average value for a user
            • Build the anti test set
            Get all kandi verified functions for this library.

            Surprise Key Features

            No Key Features are available at this moment for Surprise.

            Surprise Examples and Code Snippets

            Pythondot img1Lines of Code : 321dot img1License : Weak Copyleft (LGPL-3.0)
            copy iconCopy
            if __name__ == "__main__":
                def set_python_code_dir(script):
                    import os
                    import sys
                    python_code_dir = os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(script))
                    python_code_dir = os.path.dirname  
            copy iconCopy
            Now we come to the training embedding section, we present two version of LINE: 
                * line_org.cpp uses randomized initialization
                * line_init.cpp uses last period's embedding as initialization
            To avoid redundant description, we just show how to  
            copy iconCopy
            1. Here we just get the abstracts of papers from ./dblp-ref , and put them into ./input/
            And we add "" before each abstract and add "" at the end of the each abstract which marks the begin and the end of each abstract.
            It will print out the total n  
            recommenders - svd training
            Pythondot img4Lines of Code : 120dot img4License : Permissive (MIT License)
            copy iconCopy
            # Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
            # Licensed under the MIT License.
            import argparse
            import os
            import pandas as pd
            import surprise
                from azureml.core import Run
                HAS_AML = True
                run = Run.get_context()
            gluon-cv - demo cifar10
            Pythondot img5Lines of Code : 26dot img5License : Non-SPDX (Apache License 2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            """1. Getting Started with Pre-trained Model on CIFAR10
            `CIFAR10 `__ is a
            dataset of tiny (32x32) images with labels, collected by Alex Krizhevsky,
            Vinod Nair, and Geoffrey Hinton. It is widely  

            Community Discussions


            How can I instantiate a new pointer of type argument with generic Go?
            Asked 2022-Mar-18 at 20:27

            Now that type parameters are available on golang/go:master, I decided to give it a try. It seems that I'm running into a limitation I could not find in the Type Parameters Proposal. (Or I must have missed it).

            I want to write a function which returns a slice of values of a generic type with the constraint of an interface type. If the passed type is an implementation with a pointer receiver, how can we instantiate it?



            Answered 2021-Oct-15 at 01:50

            Edit: see blackgreen's answer, which I also found later on my own while scanning through the same documentation they linked. I was going to edit this answer to update based on that, but now I don't have to. :-)

            There is probably a better way—this one seems a bit clumsy—but I was able to work around this with reflect:



            How would you implement a lazy "range factory" for C++20 ranges that just calls a generator function?
            Asked 2022-Feb-17 at 17:10

            I like the idea of the lazy ranges you can make with std::views::iota but was surprised to see that iota is currently the only thing like it in the standard; it is the only "range factory" besides views::single and views::empty. There is not currently, for example, the equivalent of std::generate as a range factory.

            I note however it is trivial to implement the semantics of generate by using a transform view on iota and just ignoring the value iota passes to transform i.e.



            Answered 2022-Feb-17 at 17:10

            The reason why generate2 cannot work is that it does not model the range concept, that is, the type returned by its begin() does not model input_iterator, because input_iterator requires difference_type and value_type to exist and i++ is a valid expression.

            In addition, your iterator does not satisfy sentinel_for, which means that it cannot serve as its own sentinel, because sentinel_for requires semiregular which requires default_initializable, so you also need to add default constructors for it.

            You also need to rewrite bool operator!=(...) to bool operator==(...) const since operator!= does not reverse synthesize operator==. But it's easier to just use default_sentinel_t as sentinel in your case.

            if you add them to iterator you will find the code will be well-formed:



            Is if(A | B) always faster than if(A || B)?
            Asked 2022-Feb-11 at 05:03

            I am reading this book by Fedor Pikus and he has some very very interesting examples which for me were a surprise.
            Particularly this benchmark caught me, where the only difference is that in one of them we use || in if and in another we use |.



            Answered 2022-Feb-08 at 19:57

            Code readability, short-circuiting and it is not guaranteed that Ord will always outperform a || operand. Computer systems are more complicated than expected, even though they are man-made.

            There was a case where a for loop with a much more complicated condition ran faster on an IBM. The CPU didn't cool and thus instructions were executed faster, that was a possible reason. What I am trying to say, focus on other areas to improve code than fighting small-cases which will differ depending on the CPU and the boolean evaluation (compiler optimizations).



            What are the rules for re-binding?
            Asked 2022-Feb-10 at 18:32

            [NOTE: I asked this question based on an older version of Rakudo. As explained in the accepted answer, the confusing output was the result of Rakudo bugs, which have now been resolved. I've left the original version of the Q below for historical reference.]

            Raku sometimes prohibits re-binding; both of the following lines



            Answered 2021-Sep-22 at 00:26

            A decidedly non-authoritative answer. Curiously, like jnthn in your prior Q, it feels natural to answer your questions in reverse order:

            Is there any way to tell Raku "don't rebind this name to a new value, no-really-I-mean-it"?

            As far as I can tell so far -- purely by testing variations, not by checking roast or the compiler source -- you can and must declare a sigil free symbol, and it must not be one declared with my \symbol ...:



            Why is QuackSort 2x faster than Data.List's sort for random lists?
            Asked 2022-Jan-27 at 19:24

            I was looking for the canonical implementation of MergeSort on Haskell to port to HOVM, and I found this StackOverflow answer. When porting the algorithm, I realized something looked silly: the algorithm has a "halve" function that does nothing but split a list in two, using half of the length, before recursing and merging. So I thought: why not make a better use of this pass, and use a pivot, to make each half respectively smaller and bigger than that pivot? That would increase the odds that recursive merge calls are applied to already-sorted lists, which might speed up the algorithm!

            I've done this change, resulting in the following code:



            Answered 2022-Jan-27 at 19:15

            Your split splits the list in two ordered halves, so merge consumes its first argument first and then just produces the second half in full. In other words it is equivalent to ++, doing redundant comparisons on the first half which always turn out to be True.

            In the true mergesort the merge actually does twice the work on random data because the two parts are not ordered.

            The split though spends some work on the partitioning whereas an online bottom-up mergesort would spend no work there at all. But the built-in sort tries to detect ordered runs in the input, and apparently that extra work is not negligible.



            Where does the magic of singleton arrays come from?
            Asked 2022-Jan-16 at 15:20

            The following difference between Vector{Missing} and Vector{Int} surprised me (in a positive way):



            Answered 2022-Jan-16 at 15:20

            The basic answer is that for an a = Array(T) Julia always allocates sizeof(T)*length(a)+40 bytes. Since sizeof(Missing) == 0, this means it doesn't allocate any bytes related to the length.

            Indexing occurs on line 569 of array.c, and the relevant line is



            Testing React Component with React Router V6
            Asked 2022-Jan-02 at 08:29

            I understand that React Testing Library has an example of testing with react router, but I couldn't get it to work (I think because I am using react router V6).

            Basically, I need router testing because I have details component that uses useParams() to get part of the url. I can't render the component without it.

            This was my attempt to make it work (yes the page also needs apollo, although it doesn't really need redux).



            Answered 2022-Jan-02 at 08:29

            The MempryRouter still takes an array of initialEntries.




            A clarification on the named requirements for containers
            Asked 2022-Jan-01 at 16:27

            I am trying to get to grips with the specifics of the (C++20) standards requirements for container classes with a view to writing some container classes that are compatible with the standard library. To begin looking into this matter I have looked up the references for named requirements, specifically around container requirements, and have only found one general container requirement called Container given by the standard. Reading this requirement has given my two queries that I am unsure about and would like some clarification on:

            1. The requirement for the expression a == b for two container type C has as precondition on the element type T that it is equality comparable. However, noted later on the same page under the header 'other requirements' is the explicitly requirement that T be always equality comparable. Thus, on my reading the precondition for the aforementioned requirement is redundant and need not be given. Am I correct in this thinking, or is there something else at play here that I should take into account?

            2. I was surprised to see explicit requirements on T at all: notably the equality comparable requirement above and the named requirement destructible. Does this mean it is undefined behaviour to ever construct standard containers of types failing these requirements, or only to perform certain standard library function calls on them?

            Apologies if these two questions sound asinine, I am currently trying to transition my C++ knowledge from a place of having a basic understanding of how to use features to a robust understanding so that I may write good generic code. Whilst I am trying to use (a draft of) the standard to look up behaviour where possible, its verbiage is oft too verbose for me to completely understand what is actually being said.

            In an attempt to seek the answer I cooked up a a quick test .cpp file to try an compile, given below. All uncommented code compiles with MSVC compiler set to C++20. All commented code will not compile, and visa versa all uncommented code will. It seems that what one naively thinks should work does In particular:

            • We cannot construct any object without a destructor, though the objects type is valid and can be used for other things (for example as a template parameter!)
            • We cannot create an object of vector, where T has no destructor, even if we don't attempt to create any objects T. Presumably because creating the destructor for vector tries to access a destructor for T.
            • We can create an object of type vector, T where T has no operator ==, so long as we do not try to use operator ==, which would require T to have operator ==.

            However, just because my compiler lets me make an object of vector where T is not equality-comparable does not mean I have achieved standards compliant behaviour/ all of our behaviour is not undefined - which is what I want I concerned about, especially as at least some of the usual requirements on the container object have been violated.




            Answered 2021-Dec-30 at 04:32

            If the members of a container are not destructible, then the container could never do anything except add new elements (or replace existing elements). erase, resize and destruction all involve destroying elements. If you had a type T that was not destructible, and attempted to instantiate a vector (say), I would expect that it would fail to compile.

            As for the duplicate requirements, I suspect that's just something that snuck in when the CppReference folks wrote that page. The container requirements in the standard mention (in the entry for a == b) that the elements must be equality comparable.



            High GC time for simple mapreduce problem
            Asked 2021-Dec-30 at 11:47

            I have simulation program written in Julia that does something equivalent to this as a part of its main loop:



            Answered 2021-Dec-29 at 09:54

            It is possible to do it in place like this:



            Why using inner class in outer class generic type parameter not allowed if inner class is private?
            Asked 2021-Dec-25 at 20:09

            This is maybe a dumb question, but I'm pretty surprised to see that using the private inner class as a generic type in the outer class isn't allowed.

            If I make the inner class protected, it compiles fine.

            Additionally, I have to precise Outer.Inner instead of just Inner, otherwise the inner class isn't found. This also looks a little weird.

            Why can't Inner be private ? And why it is allowed to be protected ?



            Answered 2021-Dec-25 at 20:09

            Note the meaning of private from the language spec §6.6.1, emphasis mine:

            Otherwise, the member or constructor is declared private. Access is permitted only when the access occurs from within the body of the top level class or interface that encloses the declaration of the member or constructor.

            The extends clause is not part of the class body. The syntax for a class declaration looks like this (Classes):


            Community Discussions, Code Snippets contain sources that include Stack Exchange Network


            No vulnerabilities reported

            Install Surprise

            With pip (you'll need numpy, and a C compiler. Windows users might prefer using conda):.


            For any new features, suggestions and bugs create an issue on GitHub. If you have any questions check and ask questions on community page Stack Overflow .
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