interpret | Explain blackbox machine learning | Machine Learning library

 by   interpretml C++ Version: 0.6.1 License: MIT

kandi X-RAY | interpret Summary

kandi X-RAY | interpret Summary

interpret is a C++ library typically used in Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning applications. interpret has no bugs, it has no vulnerabilities, it has a Permissive License and it has medium support. You can download it from GitHub.

Fit interpretable models. Explain blackbox machine learning.

            kandi-support Support

              interpret has a medium active ecosystem.
              It has 5539 star(s) with 677 fork(s). There are 142 watchers for this library.
              There were 4 major release(s) in the last 6 months.
              There are 55 open issues and 306 have been closed. On average issues are closed in 213 days. There are 2 open pull requests and 0 closed requests.
              It has a neutral sentiment in the developer community.
              The latest version of interpret is 0.6.1

            kandi-Quality Quality

              interpret has 0 bugs and 0 code smells.

            kandi-Security Security

              interpret has no vulnerabilities reported, and its dependent libraries have no vulnerabilities reported.
              interpret code analysis shows 0 unresolved vulnerabilities.
              There are 0 security hotspots that need review.

            kandi-License License

              interpret is licensed under the MIT License. This license is Permissive.
              Permissive licenses have the least restrictions, and you can use them in most projects.

            kandi-Reuse Reuse

              interpret releases are available to install and integrate.
              Installation instructions, examples and code snippets are available.
              It has 11428 lines of code, 562 functions and 112 files.
              It has medium code complexity. Code complexity directly impacts maintainability of the code.

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            interpret Key Features

            No Key Features are available at this moment for interpret.

            interpret Examples and Code Snippets

            Interpret a string
            javascriptdot img1Lines of Code : 29dot img1no licencesLicense : No License
            copy iconCopy
            function interpret(s, accum, sum) {
                    var times = 1,
                        len = s.length,
                        result = '';
                    num = s.charAt(0);
                    for (i = 1; i < len; i++) {
                        if (s.char  
            Interpret the given identifier .
            pythondot img2Lines of Code : 16dot img2License : Non-SPDX (Apache License 2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            def get(identifier):
              """Get a loss scale object."""
              if isinstance(identifier, dict):
                return deserialize(identifier)
              if isinstance(identifier, (int, float)):
                return loss_scale_module.FixedLossScale(identifier)
              if identifier == 'dynami  
            How to print regular page number rather than a page number by a parameter?
            Pythondot img3Lines of Code : 3dot img3License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            for page in range(0, 27800, 20):
                print(f'page {(page/20)+1} =====')
            How to get 1 if there is nothing before the 'x' in an equation?
            Pythondot img4Lines of Code : 13dot img4License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            a, b, c = map(
                lambda coeff: int(coeff) if coeff else 1,
            equation_pattern = re.compile(r"(?P<
            Counting the number of leading zero bits in a sha256 encrpytion
            Pythondot img5Lines of Code : 86dot img5License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            digest = hashlib.sha256(some_data_from_file.encode('ascii')).digest()
            print(256 - int.from_bytes(digest, 'big').bit_length())
            import hashlib
            some_data_from_file = '665782'
            # Show hex digest for clarity
            hex = hash
            Interpreting syntax
            Pythondot img6Lines of Code : 12dot img6License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            def foo():
            def bar()
              return True, (x for x in range(5) if x > 2), [1, 2, 3]
            >>> def baz():
            ...   return True,
            >>> baz()
            How to extract only SUDO version from Linux with python Subprocess
            Pythondot img7Lines of Code : 4dot img7License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            >>> import subprocess
            >>> subprocess.check_output("sudo --version", shell=True, stderr=subprocess.STDOUT, encoding="utf-8").splitlines()[0]
            'Sudo version 1.8.31'
            Python Pandas multiindex
            Pythondot img8Lines of Code : 11dot img8License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            data = list(range(39))
            columns = pd.MultiIndex.from_product([['1', '2', '6'],
                                                  [str(year) for year in range(2007, 2020)]],
                                                 names=['Factor', 'Year'])
            df = pd.DataFra
            How to access network locations using absolute paths?
            Pythondot img9Lines of Code : 8dot img9License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy
            file_path = '//'
            for file_name in os.listdir(file_path):
            Odoo default data for binary field
            Pythondot img10Lines of Code : 2dot img10License : Strong Copyleft (CC BY-SA 4.0)
            copy iconCopy

            Community Discussions


            What is a good technique for compile-time detection of mismatched preprocessor-definitions between library-code and user-code?
            Asked 2022-Apr-04 at 16:07

            Motivating background info: I maintain a C++ library, and I spent way too much time this weekend tracking down a mysterious memory-corruption problem in an application that links to this library. The problem eventually turned out to be caused by the fact that the C++ library was built with a particular -DBLAH_BLAH compiler-flag, while the application's code was being compiled without that -DBLAH_BLAH flag, and that led to the library-code and the application-code interpreting the classes declared in the library's header-files differently in terms of data-layout. That is: sizeof(ThisOneParticularClass) would return a different value when invoked from a .cpp file in the application than it would when invoked from a .cpp file in the library.

            So far, so unfortunate -- I have addressed the immediate problem by making sure that the library and application are both built using the same preprocessor-flags, and I also modified the library so that the presence or absence of the -DBLAH_BLAH flag won't affect the sizeof() its exported classes... but I feel like that wasn't really enough to address the more general problem of a library being compiled with different preprocessor-flags than the application that uses that library. Ideally I'd like to find a mechanism that would catch that sort of problem at compile-time, rather than allowing it to silently invoke undefined behavior at runtime. Is there a good technique for doing that? (All I can think of is to auto-generate a header file with #ifdef/#ifndef tests for the application code to #include, that would deliberately #error out if the necessary #defines aren't set, or perhaps would automatically-set the appropriate #defines right there... but that feels a lot like reinventing automake and similar, which seems like potentially opening a big can of worms)



            Answered 2022-Apr-04 at 16:07

            One way of implementing such a check is to provide definition/declaration pairs for global variables that change, according to whether or not particular macros/tokens are defined. Doing so will cause a linker error if a declaration in a header, when included by a client source, does not match that used when building the library.

            As a brief illustration, consider the following section, to be added to the "MyLibrary.h" header file (included both when building the library and when using it):



            ImportError: cannot import name 'safe_str_cmp' from ''
            Asked 2022-Mar-28 at 21:19

            any ideas why this error?

            my project was working fine, i copied it to an external drive and onto my laptop to work on the road, it worked fine. i copied back to my desktop and had a load of issues with invalid interpreters etc, so i made a new project and copied just the scripts in, made a new requirements.txt and installed all the packages, but when i run i get this error



            Answered 2022-Mar-28 at 21:19

            Werkzeug released v2.1.0 today, removing

            You can probably resolve this issue by pinning Werkzeug~=2.0.0 in your requirements.txt file (or similar).



            Why does the type signature of linear array change compared to normal array?
            Asked 2022-Feb-28 at 10:13

            I'm going through an example in A Taste of Linear Logic.

            It first introduces the standard array with the usual operations defined (page 24):

            Then suggests that a linear equivalent (using a linear logic for type signatures to restrict array copying) would have a slightly different type signature:

            This is designed with the idea that array contains values that are cheap to copy but that the array itself is expensive to copy and thus should be passed along from use to use as a handle.

            Question: The signatures for lookup and update correspond well to the standard signatures, but how do I interpret the signature for new?

            In particular:

            • The function new does not seem to return an array. How can I get an array to use if one is not provided?
            • I think I do understand that Arr –o Arr x X is not derivable using linear logic and therefore a function to extract individual values without consuming the array is needed, but I don't understand why new doesn't provide that function directly


            Answered 2022-Feb-28 at 10:13

            In practical terms, this is about garbage collection.

            Linear logic avoids making copies as well as leaving unused values lying around. So when you create an array with new, you also need to make sure it's eventually cleaned up again.

            How can you make sure it is cleaned up? Well, in this example they do it by not giving back the array as the result, but instead “lending” it to the caller. The function ArrArrX must give an array back in the end, in addition to the result you're actually interested in. It's assumed that this will be a modified form of the array you started out with. Only the X is passed back to the caller, the Arr is deallocated.



            Different results between clang/gcc and MSVC for templated constructor in base class
            Asked 2022-Feb-06 at 21:41

            I stumbled over the following piece of code. The "DerivedFoo" case produces different results on MSVC than on clang or gcc. Namely, clang 13 and gcc 11.2 call the copy constructor of Foo while MSVC v19.29 calls the templated constructor. I am using C++17.

            Considering the non-derived case ("Foo") where all compilers agree to call the templated constructor, I think that this is a bug in clang and gcc and that MSVC is correct? Or am I interpreting things wrong and clang/gcc are correct? Can anyone shed some light on what might be going on?

            Code (



            Answered 2022-Feb-06 at 21:41

            It is correct that the constructor template is generally a better match for the constructor call with argument of type DerivedFoo& or Foo& than the copy constructors are, since it doesn't require a const conversion.

            However, [over.match.funcs.general]/8 essentially (almost) says, in more general wording, that an inherited constructor that would have the form of a move or copy constructor is excluded from overload resolution, even if it is instantiated from a constructor template. Therefore the template constructor will not be considered.

            Therefore the implicit copy constructor of DerivedFoo will be chosen by overload resolution for



            Create new column based on existing columns whose names are stored in another column (dplyr)
            Asked 2022-Jan-22 at 06:07

            Consider the following dataset:



            Answered 2022-Jan-21 at 20:14

            A tidyverse option would be rowwise with extraction using cur_data()



            Is there a mistake in the C standard description of pointer declarators?
            Asked 2021-Dec-12 at 20:54

            C 2018 1 says:

            If, in the declaration “T D1”, D1 has the form

                * type-qualifier-listopt D

            and the type specified for ident in the declaration “T D” is “derived-declarator-type-list T”, then the type specified for ident is “derived-declarator-type-list type-qualifier-list pointer to T”. For each type qualifier in the list, ident is a so-qualified pointer.

            This question is about the final sentence, but let’s work through the first one first.

            Consider the declaration int * const * foo. Here T is int, D1 is * const * foo, type-qualifier-list is const, and D is * foo.

            Then T D is int * foo, and that specifies “pointer to int” for the ident foo, so derived-declarator-type-list is “pointer to”. (There is no overt explanation of derived-declarator-type-list in the standard, but 6.7.8 3, discussing typedef, says it “is specified by the declarators of D.”)

            Substituting these into the final clause of the first sentence tells us that T D1 specifies the type for foo is “pointer to const pointer to int”. Fine so far.

            But then the final sentence tells us that for each type qualifier in the list (which is const), ident is a so-qualified pointer. So it says foo is a const pointer.

            But it is not; we commonly interpret int * const * foo to declare foo to be a non-const pointer to a const pointer to int.

            Is this a mistake in the standard or is there another interpretation for the final sentence?



            Answered 2021-Dec-04 at 08:18

            With T as int and D as * foo, the "T D" does not give ident the type T, but pointer to T.

            The second part of the if:

            If ... and the type specified for ident in the declaration “T D” is “derived-declarator-type-list T”

            seems to make sure that the nesting is correct.

            With two stars, you would have to use D2 - D1 - D before you reach the direct declarator.

            The second example:



            Are codatatypes really terminal algebras?
            Asked 2021-Nov-27 at 00:22

            (Disclaimer: I'm not 100% sure how codatatype works, especially when not referring to terminal algebras).

            Consider the "category of types", something like Hask but with whatever adjustment that fits the discussion. Within such a category, it is said that (1) the initial algebras define datatypes, and (2) terminal algebras define codatatypes.

            I'm struggling to convince myself of (2).

            Consider the functor T(t) = 1 + a * t. I agree that the initial T-algebra is well-defined and indeed defines [a], the list of a. By definition, the initial T-algebra is a type X together with a function f :: 1+a*X -> X, such that for any other type Y and function g :: 1+a*Y -> Y, there is exactly one function m :: X -> Y such that m . f = g . T(m) (where . denotes the function combination operator as in Haskell). With f interpreted as the list constructor(s), g the initial value and the step function, and T(m) the recursion operation, the equation essentially asserts the unique existance of the function m given any initial value and any step function defined in g, which necessitates an underlying well-behaved fold together with the underlying type, the list of a.

            For example, g :: Unit + (a, Nat) -> Nat could be () -> 0 | (_,n) -> n+1, in which case m defines the length function, or g could be () -> 0 | (_,n) -> 0, then m defines a constant zero function. An important fact here is that, for whatever g, m can always be uniquely defined, just as fold does not impose any contraint on its arguments and always produce a unique well-defined result.

            This does not seem to hold for terminal algebras.

            Consider the same functor T defined above. The definition of the terminal T-algebra is the same as the initial one, except that m is now of type X -> Y and the equation now becomes m . g = f . T(m). It is said that this should define a potentially infinite list.

            I agree that this is sometimes true. For example, when g :: Unit + (Unit, Int) -> Int is defined as () -> 0 | (_,n) -> n+1 like before, m then behaves such that m(0) = () and m(n+1) = Cons () m(n). For non-negative n, m(n) should be a finite list of units. For any negative n, m(n) should be of infinite length. It can be verified that the equation above holds for such g and m.

            With any of the two following modified definition of g, however, I don't see any well-defined m anymore.

            First, when g is again () -> 0 | (_,n) -> n+1 but is of type g :: Unit + (Bool, Int) -> Int, m must satisfy that m(g((b,i))) = Cons b m(g(i)), which means that the result depends on b. But this is impossible, because m(g((b,i))) is really just m(i+1) which has no mentioning of b whatsoever, so the equation is not well-defined.

            Second, when g is again of type g :: Unit + (Unit, Int) -> Int but is defined as the constant zero function g _ = 0, m must satisfy that m(g(())) = Nil and m(g(((),i))) = Cons () m(g(i)), which are contradictory because their left hand sides are the same, both being m(0), while the right hand sides are never the same.

            In summary, there are T-algebras that have no morphism into the supposed terminal T-algebra, which implies that the terminal T-algebra does not exist. The theoretical modeling of the codatatype Stream (or infinite list), if any, cannot be based on the nonexistant terminal algebra of the functor T(t) = 1 + a * t.

            Many thanks to any hint of any flaw in the story above.



            Answered 2021-Nov-26 at 19:57

            (2) terminal algebras define codatatypes.

            This is not right, codatatypes are terminal coalgebras. For your T functor, a coalgebra is a type x together with f :: x -> T x. A T-coalgebra morphism between (x1, f1) and (x2, f2) is a g :: x1 -> x2 such that fmap g . f1 = f2 . g. Using this definition, the terminal T-algebra defines the possibly infinite lists (so-called "colists"), and the terminality is witnessed by the unfold function:



            What does the hook numbers in the Reactjs Dev tool correspond to?
            Asked 2021-Nov-06 at 02:32

            I have a react.js app that I want to profile for performance issues.

            I'm using the react dev tool profiler in firefox.

            I profile a specific interaction and get the flamegraph and the ranked time graph in the dev tool.

            Then this message shows up in the dev tool:

            This part of the dev tool is not interactive, and I can't find anything on how the hooks are numbered.

            How do I interpret these numbers? What do they correspond to? Where can I find the information on what hooks they refer to?



            Answered 2021-Nov-06 at 02:32

            This is the PR where they added that feat. They didn't provide a better UI due to some performance constraints. But you can find what hooks those indexes correspond to if you go to the components tab in dev tools and inspect said component; in the hooks section, you'll have a tree of the called hooks, and for each hook, a small number at the left which is the index. You'll probably need to unfold the tree of hooks to find them.

            Here's a screenshot from the linked PR



            ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'jsonschema.compat'
            Asked 2021-Nov-02 at 07:20

            I have been working with the Bybit API for the last week when I encountered the title problem yesterday. I have started a new env and installed only the bybit wrapper again and the issue still arises. From what I can see I have jsonschema installed and in my env PATH. It was working a few days ago, so I do believe this to be separate from whatever API I am trying to use. Included is a picture of the response when run in an interpreter. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

            ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'jsonschema.compat' is the error that comes up.



            Answered 2021-Oct-03 at 20:57

            I have exactly the same problem! It was working before the release of 1.3, with the version 1.21 months a go. I found this problem to day after updateing my venv to the newest versions. Search a little more, it is a problem with the version of the jsonschema-4.0.1, go back to version 3.1.1 of jsonschema and all is running like befor, incl. the version 1.3 of bybit. Regards,



            How to execute raku script from interpreter?
            Asked 2021-Oct-24 at 16:39

            I open raku/rakudo/perl6 thus:



            Answered 2021-Oct-24 at 14:46

            It's called Read-Eval-Print Loop REPL. You can execute raku scripts direct in the shell: raku filename.raku without REPL. To run code from REPL you can have a look at run (run ) or EVALFILE.

            The rosettacode page Include a file has some information. But it looks like there is no exact replacement for your R source('script.R') example at the moment.


            Community Discussions, Code Snippets contain sources that include Stack Exchange Network


            No vulnerabilities reported

            Install interpret

            Python 3.6+ | Linux, Mac, Windows.


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