ML-From-Scratch is a Python library typically used in Institutions, Learning, Education, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Example Codes applications. ML-From-Scratch has no bugs, it has no vulnerabilities, it has build file available, it has a Permissive License and it has medium support. You can install using 'pip install ML-From-Scratch' or download it from GitHub, PyPI.

Python implementations of some of the fundamental Machine Learning models and algorithms from scratch. The purpose of this project is not to produce as optimized and computationally efficient algorithms as possible but rather to present the inner workings of them in a transparent and accessible way.

Support

- ML-From-Scratch has a medium active ecosystem.
- It has 20024 star(s) with 3880 fork(s). There are 972 watchers for this library.
- It had no major release in the last 12 months.
- There are 25 open issues and 36 have been closed. On average issues are closed in 38 days. There are 17 open pull requests and 0 closed requests.
- It has a neutral sentiment in the developer community.
- The latest version of ML-From-Scratch is current.

Quality

- ML-From-Scratch has 0 bugs and 0 code smells.

Security

- ML-From-Scratch has no vulnerabilities reported, and its dependent libraries have no vulnerabilities reported.
- ML-From-Scratch code analysis shows 0 unresolved vulnerabilities.
- There are 0 security hotspots that need review.

License

- ML-From-Scratch is licensed under the MIT License. This license is Permissive.
- Permissive licenses have the least restrictions, and you can use them in most projects.

Reuse

- ML-From-Scratch releases are not available. You will need to build from source code and install.
- Deployable package is available in PyPI.
- Build file is available. You can build the component from source.
- Installation instructions are not available. Examples and code snippets are available.

Top functions reviewed by kandi - BETA

kandi has reviewed ML-From-Scratch and discovered the below as its top functions. This is intended to give you an instant insight into ML-From-Scratch implemented functionality, and help decide if they suit your requirements.

- Compute the impurity tree for each feature .
- Train the model .
- Return a list of rules from an itemset .
- Determine the frequent items in the conditional database .
- Runs a single population .
- Evolve the population .
- Classify a given sample .
- Plot regression .
- Find k - fold cross validation sets .
- Create a cluster from a list of neighbors .

Machine Learning From Scratch. Bare bones NumPy implementations of machine learning models and algorithms with a focus on accessibility. Aims to cover everything from linear regression to deep learning.

Installation

```
$ git clone https://github.com/eriklindernoren/ML-From-Scratch
$ cd ML-From-Scratch
$ python setup.py install
```

QUESTION

Why the predicted value by LinearRegression is exactly the same as the true value?

Asked 2020-Sep-24 at 23:10I'm doing a regression by `LinearRegression`

and get the mean squared error 0. I think there should be some deviation(at least small). Could you please explain this phenomenon?

```
## Import packages
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
import urllib.request
## Import dataset
urllib.request.urlretrieve('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Data-Science-FMI/ml-from-scratch-2019/master/data/house_prices_train.csv',
'house_prices_train.csv')
df_train = pd.read_csv('house_prices_train.csv')
x = df_train['GrLivArea'].values.reshape(1, -1)
y = df_train['SalePrice'].values.reshape(1, -1)
print('The explanatory variable is', x)
print('The variable to be predicted is', y)
## Regression
reg = LinearRegression().fit(x, y)
mean_squared_error(y, reg.predict(x))
print('The MSE is', mean_squared_error(y, reg.predict(x)))
print('Predicted value is', reg.predict(x))
print('True value is', y)
```

The result is

```
The explanatory variable is [[1710 1262 1786 ... 2340 1078 1256]]
The variable to be predicted is [[208500 181500 223500 ... 266500 142125 147500]]
The MSE is 0.0
Predicted value is [[208500. 181500. 223500. ... 266500. 142125. 147500.]]
True value is [[208500 181500 223500 ... 266500 142125 147500]]
```

ANSWER

Answered 2020-Sep-24 at 23:10While the comments are certainly correct that a model's score on its own training set will be inflated, it is unlikely to get a perfect fit with linear regression, especially with just one feature.

Your problem is that you've reshaped the data incorrectly: `reshape(1, -1)`

makes an array of shape `(1, n)`

, so your model thinks it has `n`

features and `n`

outputs with only a single sample, and so is a multiple linear regression with a perfect fit. Try instead with `reshape(-1, 1)`

for `x`

and no reshaping for `y`

.

Community Discussions, Code Snippets contain sources that include Stack Exchange Network

No vulnerabilities reported

You can install using 'pip install ML-From-Scratch' or download it from GitHub, PyPI.

You can use ML-From-Scratch like any standard Python library. You will need to make sure that you have a development environment consisting of a Python distribution including header files, a compiler, pip, and git installed. Make sure that your pip, setuptools, and wheel are up to date. When using pip it is generally recommended to install packages in a virtual environment to avoid changes to the system.

You can use ML-From-Scratch like any standard Python library. You will need to make sure that you have a development environment consisting of a Python distribution including header files, a compiler, pip, and git installed. Make sure that your pip, setuptools, and wheel are up to date. When using pip it is generally recommended to install packages in a virtual environment to avoid changes to the system.

If there's some implementation you would like to see here or if you're just feeling social, feel free to email me or connect with me on LinkedIn.

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