C | various algorithms in mathematics , machine learning | Learning library

 by   TheAlgorithms C Version: Current License: GPL-3.0

kandi X-RAY | C Summary

kandi X-RAY | C Summary

C is a C library typically used in Tutorial, Learning, Example Codes applications. C has no bugs, it has no vulnerabilities, it has a Strong Copyleft License and it has medium support. You can download it from GitHub.

The repository is a collection of open-source implementations of a variety of algorithms implemented in C and licensed under GPLv3 License. The algorithms span a variety of topics from computer science, mathematics and statistics, data science, machine learning, engineering, etc.. The implementations and their associated documentations are meant to provide a learning resource for educators and students. Hence, one may find more than one implementation for the same objective but using different algorithm strategies and optimizations.

            kandi-support Support

              C has a medium active ecosystem.
              It has 16356 star(s) with 4000 fork(s). There are 508 watchers for this library.
              It had no major release in the last 6 months.
              There are 9 open issues and 112 have been closed. On average issues are closed in 61 days. There are 17 open pull requests and 0 closed requests.
              It has a neutral sentiment in the developer community.
              The latest version of C is current.

            kandi-Quality Quality

              C has 0 bugs and 0 code smells.

            kandi-Security Security

              C has no vulnerabilities reported, and its dependent libraries have no vulnerabilities reported.
              C code analysis shows 0 unresolved vulnerabilities.
              There are 0 security hotspots that need review.

            kandi-License License

              C is licensed under the GPL-3.0 License. This license is Strong Copyleft.
              Strong Copyleft licenses enforce sharing, and you can use them when creating open source projects.

            kandi-Reuse Reuse

              C releases are not available. You will need to build from source code and install.

            Top functions reviewed by kandi - BETA

            kandi's functional review helps you automatically verify the functionalities of the libraries and avoid rework.
            Currently covering the most popular Java, JavaScript and Python libraries. See a Sample of C
            Get all kandi verified functions for this library.

            C Key Features

            No Key Features are available at this moment for C.

            C Examples and Code Snippets

            Convert a byte array to a C source code .
            pythondot img1Lines of Code : 118dot img1License : Non-SPDX (Apache License 2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            def convert_bytes_to_c_source(data,
            Run the benchmark using C ++ iteration .
            pythondot img2Lines of Code : 17dot img2License : Non-SPDX (Apache License 2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            def run_benchmark_with_only_cpp_iterations(self, dataset):
                """Benchmarks the dataset with the iterations performed in C++."""
                # NOTE: We use `dataset.skip()` to perform the iterations in C++, avoiding
                # the overhead of multiple `session.r  

            Community Discussions


            Error: Member not found: 'packageRoot', how to solve ignore: deprecated_member_use in Flutter?
            Asked 2022-Apr-05 at 06:52

            In my flutter project, I have made some updates of plugins and then used flutter upgrade. After that, whenever I am running my flutter project it is showing following error-



            Answered 2021-Dec-16 at 11:49

            For me, cleaning and getting the packages didn't work. This error started after I upgraded flutter. I was on the master channel, a quick fix for me was to switch to stable.

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/70363918


            Error while creating new React app ("You are running `create-react-app` 4.0.3, which is behind the latest release (5.0.0)")
            Asked 2022-Apr-04 at 11:58

            I am getting this create React app error again and again even after doing the uninstall part.

            npm uninstall -g create-react-app

            up to date, audited 1 package in 570ms

            found 0 vulnerabilities

            npx create-react-app test-app

            Need to install the following packages: create-react-app Ok to proceed? (y) y

            You are running create-react-app 4.0.3, which is behind the latest release (5.0.0).

            We no longer support global installation of Create React App.

            Please remove any global installs with one of the following commands:

            • npm uninstall -g create-react-app
            • yarn global remove create-react-app

            The latest instructions for creating a new app can be found here: https://create-react-app.dev/docs/getting-started/



            Answered 2022-Jan-01 at 22:34

            You will have to clear the npx cache to make it work.

            You can locate the location of the folder where create-react-app is installed using npm ls -g create-react-app.

            Also, to clear the cache, refer to this answer in How can I clear the central cache for `npx`?

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/70358474


            Publish error: Found multiple publish output files with the same relative path
            Asked 2022-Mar-21 at 05:58

            When I publish my ABP project I get the following error:



            Answered 2022-Jan-13 at 21:59


            The issue raises after .NET 6 migration. There's a new feature that blocks multiple files from being copied to the same target directory with the same file name. See https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/dotnet/core/compatibility/sdk/6.0/duplicate-files-in-output

            Solution #1 (workaround):

            You can add the following build property to all your publishable (*.Web) projects' *.csproj files. This property will bypass this check and works as previously, in .NET5.

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/69919664


            android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for . Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify
            Asked 2022-Feb-23 at 14:13

            After upgrading to android 12, the application is not compiling. It shows

            "Manifest merger failed with multiple errors, see logs"

            Error showing in Merged manifest:

            Merging Errors: Error: android:exported needs to be explicitly specified for . Apps targeting Android 12 and higher are required to specify an explicit value for android:exported when the corresponding component has an intent filter defined. See https://developer.android.com/guide/topics/manifest/activity-element#exported for details. main manifest (this file)

            I have set all the activity with android:exported="false". But it is still showing this issue.

            My manifest file:



            Answered 2021-Aug-04 at 09:18

            I'm not sure what you're using to code, but in order to set it in Android Studio, open the manifest of your project and under the "activity" section, put android:exported="true"(or false if that is what you prefer). I have attached an example.

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/68554294


            What's the mathematical reason behind Python choosing to round integer division toward negative infinity?
            Asked 2022-Jan-30 at 01:29

            I know Python // rounds towards negative infinity and in C++ / is truncating, rounding towards 0.

            And here's what I know so far:



            Answered 2022-Jan-18 at 21:46

            Although I can't provide a formal definition of why/how the rounding modes were chosen as they were, the citation about compatibility with the % operator, which you have included, does make sense when you consider that % is not quite the same thing in C++ and Python.

            In C++, it is the remainder operator, whereas, in Python, it is the modulus operator – and, when the two operands have different signs, these aren't necessarily the same thing. There are some fine explanations of the difference between these operators in the answers to: What's the difference between “mod” and “remainder”?

            Now, considering this difference, the rounding (truncation) modes for integer division have to be as they are in the two languages, to ensure that the relationship you quoted, (m/n)*n + m%n == m, remains valid.

            Here are two short programs that demonstrate this in action (please forgive my somewhat naïve Python code – I'm a beginner in that language):


            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/70730831


            Bubble sort slower with -O3 than -O2 with GCC
            Asked 2022-Jan-21 at 02:41

            I made a bubble sort implementation in C, and was testing its performance when I noticed that the -O3 flag made it run even slower than no flags at all! Meanwhile -O2 was making it run a lot faster as expected.

            Without optimisations:



            Answered 2021-Oct-27 at 19:53

            It looks like GCC's naïveté about store-forwarding stalls is hurting its auto-vectorization strategy here. See also Store forwarding by example for some practical benchmarks on Intel with hardware performance counters, and What are the costs of failed store-to-load forwarding on x86? Also Agner Fog's x86 optimization guides.

            (gcc -O3 enables -ftree-vectorize and a few other options not included by -O2, e.g. if-conversion to branchless cmov, which is another way -O3 can hurt with data patterns GCC didn't expect. By comparison, Clang enables auto-vectorization even at -O2, although some of its optimizations are still only on at -O3.)

            It's doing 64-bit loads (and branching to store or not) on pairs of ints. This means, if we swapped the last iteration, this load comes half from that store, half from fresh memory, so we get a store-forwarding stall after every swap. But bubble sort often has long chains of swapping every iteration as an element bubbles far, so this is really bad.

            (Bubble sort is bad in general, especially if implemented naively without keeping the previous iteration's second element around in a register. It can be interesting to analyze the asm details of exactly why it sucks, so it is fair enough for wanting to try.)

            Anyway, this is pretty clearly an anti-optimization you should report on GCC Bugzilla with the "missed-optimization" keyword. Scalar loads are cheap, and store-forwarding stalls are costly. (Can modern x86 implementations store-forward from more than one prior store? no, nor can microarchitectures other than in-order Atom efficiently load when it partially overlaps with one previous store, and partially from data that has to come from the L1d cache.)

            Even better would be to keep buf[x+1] in a register and use it as buf[x] in the next iteration, avoiding a store and load. (Like good hand-written asm bubble sort examples, a few of which exist on Stack Overflow.)

            If it wasn't for the store-forwarding stalls (which AFAIK GCC doesn't know about in its cost model), this strategy might be about break-even. SSE 4.1 for a branchless pmind / pmaxd comparator might be interesting, but that would mean always storing and the C source doesn't do that.

            If this strategy of double-width load had any merit, it would be better implemented with pure integer on a 64-bit machine like x86-64, where you can operate on just the low 32 bits with garbage (or valuable data) in the upper half. E.g.,

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/69503317


            How can I resolve the error "The minCompileSdk (31) specified in a dependency's AAR metadata" in native Java or Kotlin?
            Asked 2022-Jan-01 at 22:24

            The error message:

            The minCompileSdk (31) specified in a dependency's AAR metadata (META-INF/com/android/build/gradle/aar-metadata.properties) is greater than this module's compileSdkVersion (android-30). Dependency: androidx.core:core-ktx:1.7.0-alpha02.

            AAR metadata file:



            Answered 2022-Jan-01 at 17:57

            You're going to need to update your compile SDK to 31. It sounds like it's currently set to 30. In your Gradle files there should be something like compileSdk in the android block.

            Bump that up to 31. If that's an issue for some reason, you can also bump down your dependencies to versions that don't require that compile SDK version.

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/69034879


            Why does the first element outside of a defined array default to zero?
            Asked 2021-Dec-23 at 08:46

            I'm studying for the final exam for my introduction to C++ class. Our professor gave us this problem for practice:

            Explain why the code produces the following output: 120 200 16 0



            Answered 2021-Dec-13 at 20:55

            It does not default to zero. The sample answer is wrong. Undefined behaviour is undefined; the value may be 0, it may be 100. Accessing it may cause a seg fault, or cause your computer to be formatted.

            As to why it's not an error, it's because C++ is not required to do bounds checking on arrays. You could use a vector and use the at function, which throws exceptions if you go outside the bounds, but arrays do not.

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/70340719


            Disabling the "Length Authoring Tools" (css unit selector) in Chrome Devtools Inspector
            Asked 2021-Nov-18 at 14:28

            The undesired functionality
            In Chrome 95 there was introduced new functionality where the user can hover and click on the unit part of a css value to hotswap the unit.
            The feature is part of a package solution that has been labeled "Length Authoring Tools" in the release notes, and can be seen in action and described in detail in the release notes on the official blog.

            How can this feature be disabled?

            Issue 1:

            If a css-line in the inspector says padding: 0 10px; then the user can click the px-part of the line and open a selector that let's the user swap px to other units such as rem,vmax or in.
            Clicking this part of the value no longer lets the user edit the entire value quickly. Most users already know what unit they desire to use beforehand, so they do not need to be helped to accidentally select pt or vw when working exclusively with px everywhere else.

            Issue 2:

            When selecting and copying properties from the inspector there is now inserted whitespaces/new lines between the value and the unit since the unit portion seems to be considered a separate element. This makes prototyping in the devtools and copy/pasting to external documents very tedious and broken.



            Answered 2021-Nov-18 at 14:28

            Updated answer 2021-11-16:

            An option has been added to disable Length Authoring Tools in Chrome 96.

            The following is mentioned in the official release notes for Chrome 96.

            To disable Length Authoring Tools, navigate to this location in the DevTools and uncheck the checkbox:
            Settings > Experiments > Enable CSS length authoring tools in the Styles pane.

            But... The main issues regarding Length Authoring Tools have also been fully remedied in Chrome 96.

            The initial incentive to disable these tools has been greatly diminished because of this.

            A chevron will now appear to the right of the hovered value instead of reacting to clicks to the entire unit portion of it.

            Copy paste now also works as intended.

            It is now possible to disable the Length Authoring Tools, but you might no longer need to.

            Old answer:

            You can't. (Though fixes are coming!)
            It is not possible to toggle this feature in the current live stable release ( Chrome 95.0.4638.69 ).

            Fixes have been added to Chromium ( [1], [2], [3] ) that are slowly making their way to the stable release of Chrome.

            But help is on its way...

            Chrome 96 is scheduled to be released on November 16 2021 (source), or ~3 weeks after October 28 according to this official tweet. It will at least contain a revert to free text editing of css properties (source). Hopefully version 96 will address the issue completely, but if it doesn't then the next major release is scheduled for January 4 2021 (If this issue is unresolved by then somebody at Google should be fired).

            As for now, Chrome Canary seems to have these fixes implemented and might be considered an alternative solution to the issue if you find the current state of Length Authoring Tools unbearable.

            Please be advised that Chrome Canary can be quite unstable.

            This question and answer will be edited and corrected once there are real fixes in the live stable version.

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/69719071


            Doesn't constraining the "auto" in C++ defeat the purpose of it?
            Asked 2021-Nov-15 at 02:21

            In C++20, we are now able to constrain the auto keyword to only be of a specific type. So if I had some code that looked like the following without any constraints:



            Answered 2021-Nov-01 at 18:38

            A constraint on the deduced auto type doesn't mean it needs to be a specific type, it means it needs to be one of a set of types that satisfy the constraint. Note that a constraint and a type are not the same thing, and they're not interchangeable.

            e.g. a concept like std::integral constrains the deduced type to be an integral type, such as int or long, but not float, or std::string.

            If I really need a std::integral datatype, couldn't I just omit the auto completely?

            In principle, I suppose you could, but this would at the minimum lead to parsing difficulties. e.g. in a declaration like

            Source https://stackoverflow.com/questions/69801126

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            Install C

            You can download it from GitHub.


            Online Documentation is generated from the repository source codes directly. The documentation contains all resources including source code snippets, details on execution of the programs, diagrammatic representation of program flow, and links to external resources where necessary. Click on Files menu to see the list of all the files documented with the code. Documentation of Algorithms in C by The Algorithms Contributors is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0.
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