hosts | 🔒 Consolidating and extending hosts files from several well-curated sources. Optionally pick extens | File Utils library

 by   StevenBlack Python Version: 3.13.1 License: MIT

kandi X-RAY | hosts Summary

kandi X-RAY | hosts Summary

hosts is a Python library typically used in Telecommunications, Media, Advertising, Marketing, Utilities, File Utils applications. hosts has no bugs, it has no vulnerabilities, it has build file available, it has a Permissive License and it has high support. You can download it from GitHub.

A hosts file, named hosts (with no file extension), is a plain-text file used by all operating systems to map hostnames to IP addresses. In most operating systems, the hosts file is preferential to DNS. Therefore if a domain name is resolved by the hosts file, the request never leaves your computer. Having a smart hosts file goes a long way towards blocking malware, adware, and other irritants.

            kandi-support Support

              hosts has a highly active ecosystem.
              It has 23207 star(s) with 1994 fork(s). There are 568 watchers for this library.
              There were 8 major release(s) in the last 12 months.
              There are 54 open issues and 1624 have been closed. On average issues are closed in 20 days. There are 3 open pull requests and 0 closed requests.
              It has a negative sentiment in the developer community.
              The latest version of hosts is 3.13.1

            kandi-Quality Quality

              hosts has 0 bugs and 0 code smells.

            kandi-Security Security

              hosts has no vulnerabilities reported, and its dependent libraries have no vulnerabilities reported.
              hosts code analysis shows 0 unresolved vulnerabilities.
              There are 0 security hotspots that need review.

            kandi-License License

              hosts is licensed under the MIT License. This license is Permissive.
              Permissive licenses have the least restrictions, and you can use them in most projects.

            kandi-Reuse Reuse

              hosts releases are available to install and integrate.
              Build file is available. You can build the component from source.
              Installation instructions are not available. Examples and code snippets are available.

            Top functions reviewed by kandi - BETA

            kandi has reviewed hosts and discovered the below as its top functions. This is intended to give you an instant insight into hosts implemented functionality, and help decide if they suit your requirements.
            • Write opening header
            • Try to copy an example file
            • Write data to a file
            • Join paths together
            • Removes duplicates from a whitelist file
            • Normalize a rule
            • Check if the given rule matches a given exclusion rule
            • Strip rule from line
            • Update all sources
            • Retrieve a file by url
            • Convert domain to an IDNA string
            • Prompts the user to flush the DNS cache
            • Prints the success message
            • Return default settings
            • Prints a success message
            • Return a list of files without hidden
            • Update the hosts file
            • Removes the old hosts file
            • Removes the target IP from the input file
            • Prompt for excluded domains
            • Prompts the user for a move file
            • Update readme data
            • Compress a file
            • Displays common exclusion options
            • Recursively update sources
            • Prompts for updating data sources
            • Update the readme file
            Get all kandi verified functions for this library.

            hosts Key Features

            No Key Features are available at this moment for hosts.

            hosts Examples and Code Snippets

            Parallel Evaluation in JAX-Aside: hosts and devices in JAX
            Pythondot img1Lines of Code : 15dot img1License : Permissive (Apache-2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            :id: 3DO8NwW5hurX
            :outputId: 6df0bdd7-fee2-4805-9bfe-38e41bdaeb50
            import os
            os.environ['XLA_FLAGS'] = '--xla_force_host_platform_device_count=8'
            News-Redis: Broadcast messages and virtual hosts
            Pythondot img2Lines of Code : 0dot img2License : Non-SPDX (NOASSERTION)
            copy iconCopy
            BROKER_TRANSPORT_OPTIONS = {'fanout_prefix': True}  
            Virtual Hosts
            Pythondot img3Lines of Code : 0dot img3License : Permissive (BSD-3-Clause)
            copy iconCopy
            =============== ==============================================
            Windows         ``%SystemRoot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts``
            Linux / OS X    ``/etc/hosts``
            =============== ==============================================
         localhost yourapp  
            Generates a list of hosts .
            pythondot img4Lines of Code : 56dot img4License : Non-SPDX (Apache License 2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            def expand_hostlist(hostlist):
              """Create a list of hosts out of a SLURM hostlist.
              The order of nodes is preserved and no deduplication is done
              Input: 'n[1-2],m5,o[3-4,6,7-9]')
              Output: ['n1', 'n2', 'm5', 'o3', 'o4', 'o6', 'o7', 'o8', 'o9']
            List of hosts .
            pythondot img5Lines of Code : 7dot img5License : Non-SPDX (Apache License 2.0)
            copy iconCopy
            def hosts(self):
                """A list of device names for CPU hosts.
                  A list of device names for CPU hosts.
                return copy.copy(self._hosts)  
            Gets a list of bootstrap hosts .
            javadot img6Lines of Code : 4dot img6License : Permissive (MIT License)
            copy iconCopy
                protected List getBootstrapHosts() {
                    return couchbaseProperties.getBootstrapHosts();

            Community Discussions


            Microk8s dashboard using nginx-ingress via http not working (Error: `no matches for kind "Ingress" in version "extensions/v1beta1"`)
            Asked 2022-Apr-01 at 07:26

            I have microk8s v1.22.2 running on Ubuntu 20.04.3 LTS.

            Output from /etc/hosts:



            Answered 2021-Oct-10 at 18:29
            error: unable to recognize "ingress.yaml": no matches for kind "Ingress" in version "extensions/v1beta1"



            How to fix? "kex_exchange_identification: read: Connection reset by peer"
            Asked 2022-Mar-30 at 10:07

            I want to copy data with scp in GitLab pipeline using PRIVATE_KEY error is :



            Answered 2021-Sep-30 at 19:40
            kex_exchange_identification: read: Connection reset by peer



            Flutter for iOS run, build but not archive
            Asked 2022-Mar-20 at 09:40

            My app archive perfectly two weeks age (was the latest update I made).

            After some minor changes in the flutter code (I did not add any packages or something), I am trying to archive again and I am getting some estrange errors and I have no clue where are coming from (those are from libraries, so no real changes on it). I am able to run it on the emulator and also I am able to build without any problem. I just can not archive.

            This is the error:



            Answered 2022-Mar-20 at 09:40

            This is an issue that occurs in version 13.3 of Xcode. In Xcode 13.3, if you have a code that uses UI_USER_INTERFACE_IDIOM(), you will get an "Out of Memory" error when you run Archive. Changing "UI_USER_INTERFACE_IDIOM()" to "UIDevice.current.userInterfaceIdiom" resolves the error.

            Currently, we have the following solutions.

            • Modify the code,
            • Downgrade to Xcode 13.2.1
            • Wait for Apple to modify Xcode




            Ideas on how to get around Windows 11 ARM not supporting IIS
            Asked 2022-Feb-28 at 21:25

            My new Macbook Pro running on an M1 Max (ARM) chip just came in. I installed Parallels and Windows 11 Preview for ARM, and Visual Studio installs / launches / builds my solution beautifully. Unfortunately the turn windows features on or off dialog doesn't have the option for installing IIS, and others have posted that this is not supported in Windows 11 for ARM.

            Our dev team runs multiple ASP.NET Core 3.1 websites locally under IIS using subdomains, e.g.:,, This was easy to set up in IIS using the bindings dialog, I could specify for port 443 (https) to use a certain subdomain and our dev SSL certificate.

            Now I need to figure out how to make this work on Windows 11 ARM. Developing on an inferior non-Macbook Pro laptop doesn't seem like a great solution for .NET devs, I have to assume others with M1 chip Macbook Pros have run into this same issue. What are my options?

            I first started looking into using IIS Express, but it seems like every website has to run on a different port, whereas I need them all to run on port 80 (just with different subdomains.) I'd be fine with them running on different ports if there was a way to forward those various ports to the subdomains, but it doesn't seem like the windows HOSTS file supports that.

            I also looked into using the Apache web server for Windows, but I read somewhere that it doesn't support running ASP.NET Core apps.



            Answered 2021-Dec-05 at 17:14

            You can download the ASP.NET Core Runtime or .NET 5.0 SDK to allow you run to run ASP.NET applications on Windows, Mac or Linux. See



            How to implement a Virtual host on AWS Linux Server?
            Asked 2022-Feb-24 at 19:16

            We already created a Linux server using Xampp. But we have 3-4 websites that we have to live there. But in xampp we live only one website in the root folder. We are thinking about a Virtual host. Below of our code:

            On httpd.conf file:



            Answered 2022-Feb-03 at 19:22

            I think you need to update your httpd-vhosts.conf file link that:



            Spring Boot WebClient stops sending requests
            Asked 2022-Feb-18 at 14:42

            I am running a Spring Boot app that uses WebClient for both non-blocking and blocking HTTP requests. After the app has run for some time, all outgoing HTTP requests seem to get stuck.

            WebClient is used to send requests to multiple hosts, but as an example, here is how it is initialized and used to send requests to Telegram:




            Answered 2021-Dec-20 at 14:25

            I would propose to take a look in the RateLimiter direction. Maybe it does not work as expected, depending on the number of requests your application does over time. From the Javadoc for Ratelimiter: "It is important to note that the number of permits requested never affects the throttling of the request itself ... but it affects the throttling of the next request. I.e., if an expensive task arrives at an idle RateLimiter, it will be granted immediately, but it is the next request that will experience extra throttling, thus paying for the cost of the expensive task." Also helpful might be this discussion: github or github

            I could imaginge there is some throttling adding up or other effect in the RateLimiter, i would try to play around with it and make sure this thing really works the way you want. Alternatively, consider using Spring @Scheduled to read from your queue. You might want to spice it up using embedded JMS for further goodies (message persistence etc).



            Unable to log egress traffic HTTP requests with the istio-proxy
            Asked 2022-Feb-11 at 10:45

            I am following this guide.

            Ingress requests are getting logged. Egress traffic control is working as expected, except I am unable to log egress HTTP requests. What is missing?



            Answered 2022-Feb-07 at 17:14

            AFAIK istio collects only ingress HTTP logs by default.

            In the istio documentation there is an old article (from 2018) describing how to enable egress traffic HTTP logs.

            Please keep in mind that some of the information may be outdated, however I believe this is the part that you are missing.



            Paramiko authentication fails with "Agreed upon 'rsa-sha2-512' pubkey algorithm" (and "unsupported public key algorithm: rsa-sha2-512" in sshd log)
            Asked 2022-Jan-13 at 14:49

            I have a Python 3 application running on CentOS Linux 7.7 executing SSH commands against remote hosts. It works properly but today I encountered an odd error executing a command against a "new" remote server (server based on RHEL 6.10):

            encountered RSA key, expected OPENSSH key

            Executing the same command from the system shell (using the same private key of course) works perfectly fine.

            On the remote server I discovered in /var/log/secure that when SSH connection and commands are issued from the source server with Python (using Paramiko) sshd complains about unsupported public key algorithm:

            userauth_pubkey: unsupported public key algorithm: rsa-sha2-512

            Note that target servers with higher RHEL/CentOS like 7.x don't encounter the issue.

            It seems like Paramiko picks/offers the wrong algorithm when negotiating with the remote server when on the contrary SSH shell performs the negotiation properly in the context of this "old" target server. How to get the Python program to work as expected?

            Python code



            Answered 2022-Jan-13 at 14:49

            Imo, it's a bug in Paramiko. It does not handle correctly absence of server-sig-algs extension on the server side.

            Try disabling rsa-sha2-* on Paramiko side altogether:



            vvv.test not loading (nor any of my sites) when running vagrant up
            Asked 2022-Jan-07 at 21:03

            Ever since I've upgraded my Mac to Monteray, I've been having issues with Vagrant.

            Initially, I use to see a vBoxManage error on terminal when running vagrant up. I posted a question on this on SO previously, see here for details.

            Today, I uninstalled VirtualBox again (removed VirtualBox VMs folder and moved application to trash) and reinstalled VirtualBox 6.1.3 for OS X hosts` (link here).

            I then ran vagrant up on terminal and it successfully compiled:

            After seeing the famous green teddy, I tried going to vvv.test but, the page doesn't load. I've tried accessing URLs of sites that have been provisioned before, but they too do not load.

            I've also ran vagrant up --debug, and nothing concerning was seen.

            My Vagrant version is 2.2.19

            Unsure what steps to take next?


            Steps taken:

            1. Have ran vagrant up --provision to provision sites in config.yml file (config.yml file can be seen below)
            2. Have tried to access website-dev.test, page doesn't load
            3. Have tried to access vvv.test, page doesn't load
            4. Have ran vagrant reload --provision and repeated steps 2 and 3, but same results
            5. Have ran vagrant halt and vagrant up and repeated steps 2 and 3, but same results

            I don't believe there's an issue in my config.yml file, as before Monteray update, everything was working fine (and I've made no changes to my yml file since). But, to cover all scenario's, here is my config.yml file:



            Answered 2021-Dec-15 at 18:33

            Thanks to guidance from @Tinxuanna, I've managed to solve the issue (finally!).

            For anyone else having similar issues, here's what I did:

            1. Access the /etc/hosts folder
            2. Find file called hosts and open it in a text editor.
            3. Remove the IP addresses related to vagrant (I kept a backup of the original file just in case)
            4. After saving hosts file the IP addresses removed, I ran vagrant up --provision
            5. I then ran vagrant up
            6. Then accessed vvv.test
            7. You're done!



            Docker error: standard_init_linux.go:228: exec user process caused: exec format error
            Asked 2022-Jan-06 at 22:23

            I was able to build a multiarch image successfully from an M1 Macbook which is arm64. Here's my docker file and trying to run from a raspberrypi aarch64/arm64 and I am getting this error when running the image: standard_init_linux.go:228: exec user process caused: exec format error

            Editing the post with the python file as well:



            Answered 2021-Oct-27 at 16:58

            A "multiarch" Python interpreter built on MacOS is intended to target MacOS-on-Intel and MacOS-on-Apple's-arm64.

            There is absolutely no binary compatibility with Linux-on-Apple's-arm64, or with Linux-on-aarch64. You can't run MacOS executables on Linux, no matter if the architecture matches or not.


            Community Discussions, Code Snippets contain sources that include Stack Exchange Network


            No vulnerabilities reported

            Install hosts

            You can download it from GitHub.
            You can use hosts like any standard Python library. You will need to make sure that you have a development environment consisting of a Python distribution including header files, a compiler, pip, and git installed. Make sure that your pip, setuptools, and wheel are up to date. When using pip it is generally recommended to install packages in a virtual environment to avoid changes to the system.


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